What’s so hot about the thermosphere? Anomalies and ion-neutral coupling in the ionosphere-thermosphere system
The interconnection between the Earth’s ionosphere and its thermosphere is explored through observations of thermospheric anomalies and their associated phenomena. The characteristics of several types of anomalies are presented and the central role played by ion-neutral coupling in forming them is discussed through analysis, theory, and modeling. A particular focus is on the high-altitude winds that both act as drivers and signatures of forcing. New questions regarding I-T interactions are developed based on the results, and future investigations designed to answer these questions are framed.